A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization (search engine optimisation) very a lot revolves round Google right now.

However, the apply we now know as search engine optimisation truly predates the world’s hottest search engine co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

Although it could possibly be argued that search engine optimisation and all issues search engine advertising started with the launch of the first website printed in 1991, or maybe when the primary net search engine launched, the story of search engine optimisation “formally” begins a bit later, round 1997.

According to Bob Heyman, creator of Digital Engagement, we are able to thank none aside from the supervisor of rock band Jefferson Starship for serving to give start to a brand new subject that we’d develop to know as “search engine marketing.”

You see, he was fairly upset that the official Jefferson Starship web site was rating on Page 4 of some search engine on the time, reasonably than in Position 1 on Page 1.


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Granted, we might by no means know if this story is extra revisionist historical past or 100% truth, all indicators positively level to the time period search engine optimisation originating round 1997.

Do a bit extra searching round and also you’ll see John Audette of Multimedia Marketing Group was utilizing the time period as early as February 15, 1997.

Ranking excessive on search engines like google and yahoo in 1997 was nonetheless a reasonably new idea.

It was additionally very directory-driven.

Before DMOZ fueled the unique Google classification, LookSmart was powered by Zeal, Go.com was its personal listing, and the Yahoo Directory was a serious participant in Yahoo Search.

If you’re unfamiliar with DMOZ, the Mozilla Open Directory Project (keep in mind, Mozilla was an organization and Moz was a model effectively earlier than search engine optimisationMoz), it was mainly a Yellow Pages for web sites.

This is what Yahoo was initially based upon; the flexibility to search out one of the best web sites on the market as accredited by editors.

I began doing search engine optimisation in 1998, as a necessity for our shoppers who’ve constructed cool websites however have been getting little visitors.


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Little did I do know it might develop into a life-style.

Then once more, the World Wide Web was nonetheless a reasonably new idea on the time to most individuals.

Today? Everybody needs to rule the search engine outcomes pages (SERPs).

Search Engine Optimization vs. Search Engine Marketing

Before Search Engine Optimization grew to become the official identify, different phrases have been used as effectively:

  • Search engine placement.
  • Search engine positioning.
  • Search engine rating.
  • Search engine registration.
  • Search engine submission.
  • Website promotion.

But no dialogue can be full with out mentioning one other time period…

Search Engine Marketing.

At one level in 2001, one outstanding {industry} author suggested search engine advertising as a successor to search engine marketing.

Obviously, it didn’t occur.

Prepare your self now; you’re going to see many false claims (e.g., “search engine optimisation is lifeless,” “the brand new search engine optimisation”), and makes an attempt at rebranding search engine optimisation (e.g., “Search Experience Optimization”).

While search engine optimisation as a time period isn’t excellent – in any case, we aren’t optimizing search engines like google and yahoo, we’re optimizing our net presence – it has remained the popular time period of our {industry} for greater than 20 years now and sure might be for the foreseeable future.

As for Search Engine Marketing?

It remains to be used however is now extra related to paid search advertising and promoting.

The two phrases co-exist peacefully right now.

A Timeline of Search Engine History

Search engines have modified the best way we discover data, conduct analysis, store for services and products, entertain ourselves, and join with others.

Behind virtually each on-line vacation spot – whether or not it’s an internet site, weblog, social community, or app – is a search engine.

Search engines have develop into the connecting power and directional information to on a regular basis life.

But how did this all begin?

We’ve put collectively a timeline of notable milestones from the historical past of search engines like google and yahoo and search engine marketing to grasp the roots of this expertise, which has develop into such an essential half of our world.

Dawn of search engine optimisation: ‘The Wild West’ Era

In the final decade of the 1900s, the search engine panorama was extremely aggressive.

You had your selection of search engines like google and yahoo – each human-powered directories and crawler-based listings – together with the likes of AltaVista, Ask Jeeves, Excite, Infoseek, Lycos, and Yahoo.


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In the start, the one method to carry out any sort of search engine optimisation was by on-page actions.

This included optimizing for elements resembling:

  • Making certain the content material was good and related.
  • There was sufficient textual content.
  • Your HTML tags have been correct.
  • You had inside hyperlinks and outbound hyperlinks.

If you needed to rank effectively on this period, the trick was just about simply repeating your key phrases sufficient instances all through your webpages and meta tags.

Want to outrank a web page that makes use of a key phrase 100 instances? Then you’d use the key phrase 200 instances!

Today, we name this apply spamming.

Here are some highlights:


Yahoo was created by Stanford University college students Jerry Wang and David Filo in a campus trailer. Yahoo was initially an Internet bookmark record and listing of attention-grabbing websites.

Webmasters needed to manually submit their web page to the Yahoo listing for indexing in order that it might be there for Yahoo to search out when somebody carried out a search.


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AltaVista, Excite, and Lycos additionally launched.


Page and Brin, two Stanford University college students, constructed and examined Backrub, a brand new search engine that ranked websites primarily based on inbound hyperlink relevancy and recognition.

Backrub would finally develop into Google. HotBot, powered by Inktomi, additionally launched.


Following on the success of A Webmaster’s Guide to Search Engines, Danny Sullivan launched Search Engine Watch, an internet site devoted to offering information in regards to the search {industry}, tips about looking out the online, and details about rank web sites higher.

(Ten years later, after leaving SEW, Sullivan based one other widespread search publication, Search Engine Land, and he now works at Google.)

Ask Jeeves additionally debuted and Google.com was registered.


Goto.com launched with sponsored hyperlinks and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above natural search outcomes, which have been powered by Inktomi. Goto.com was finally acquired by Yahoo.

DMOZ (the Open Directory Project) grew to become essentially the most sought-after place for search engine optimisation practitioners to get their pages listed.


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MSN entered the area with MSN Search, initially powered by Inktomi.


The first-ever all search advertising convention, Search Engine Strategies (SES), happened. You can learn a retrospective on that occasion by Sullivan here.

(The SES convention sequence continued working beneath varied monikers and guardian corporations till shutting down in 2016.)

The Google Revolution

In 2000, Yahoo pulled off the worst strategic transfer within the historical past of search and partnered with Google and let Google energy their natural outcomes as a substitute of Inktomi.

Beforehand, Google was a little-known search engine. Hardly recognized!

The finish end result: each Yahoo search end result mentioned “Powered by Google” they usually ended up introducing their largest competitor to the world and Google grew to become a family identify.

Until this level, search engines like google and yahoo primarily ranked websites primarily based on the on-page content material, domains, capacity to get listed within the aforementioned directories, and primary web site construction (breadcrumbing).

But Google’s net crawler and PageRank algorithm have been revolutionary for data retrieval.

Google checked out each on-page and off-page elements – the amount and high quality of exterior hyperlinks pointing to an internet site (in addition to the anchor textual content used).


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If you consider it, Google’s algorithm was basically about “if individuals are speaking about you, you have to be essential.”

Although hyperlinks have been just one element of Google’s general rating algorithm, search engine optimisation practitioners latched onto hyperlinks as being a very powerful issue – and a complete sub-industry of link building was created.

Over the subsequent decade, it grew to become a race to accumulate as many hyperlinks as doable within the hopes of rating larger.

Links grew to become a closely abused tactic that Google must handle in coming years.

It was additionally in 2000 that the Google Toolbar grew to become obtainable on Internet Explorer, permitting search engine optimisation practitioners to see their PageRank rating (a quantity between 0-10).

This ushered in an period of unsolicited hyperlink alternate request emails.

So with PageRank, Google basically launched a measure of foreign money to its linking. Much like area authority is misused right now.

Google’s natural outcomes additionally obtained some firm within the kind of AdWords advertisements beginning in 2000.


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These paid search advertisements started showing above, under, and to the suitable of Google’s pure (i.e., unpaid) outcomes.

Meanwhile, a gaggle of site owners informally obtained collectively at a pub in London to begin sharing details about all issues search engine optimisation in 2000.

This casual gathering finally become Pubcon, a big search convention sequence that also runs right now.

Over the approaching months and years, the search engine optimisation world obtained used to a month-to-month Google Dance, or a interval of time throughout which Google up to date its index, generally leading to main rating fluctuations.

Although Google’s Brin as soon as famously mentioned Google didn’t imagine in net spam, his opinion had most likely modified by the point 2003 rolled round.

search engine optimisation obtained so much more durable following updates like Florida as a result of it grew to become far more essential than simply repeating key phrases X quantity of instances.

In 2003, after buying Blogger.com, Google launched AdSense, which serves contextually focused Google advertisements on writer websites.


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The combine of AdSense and Blogger.com led to a surge in easy, monetized on-line publishing – and a running a blog revolution.

While Google most likely didn’t understand it on the time, they have been creating issues they must repair down the highway.

AdSense gave rise to spammy techniques and made-for-AdSense websites crammed with skinny/poor/stolen content material that existed solely to rank effectively, get clicks, and become profitable.

Oh and one thing else essential occurred in 2003.

I based the location you’re on, Search Engine Journal!

And I’m extremely comfortable to say we’re nonetheless right here, going stronger than ever.

Local search engine optimisation & Personalization

Around 2004, Google and different prime search engines like google and yahoo began enhancing outcomes for queries that had a geographic intent (e.g., a restaurant, plumber, or another kind of enterprise or service supplier in your metropolis or city).

By 2006, Google rolled out a Maps Plus Box, which I used to be fairly impressed with on the time.

It was additionally round 2004 that Google and search engines like google and yahoo started making larger use of end-user information, resembling search historical past and pursuits, to personalize search outcomes.


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This meant that the outcomes you noticed could possibly be totally different than what somebody sitting subsequent to you in a espresso store noticed when she or he did a search for a similar question.

Also in 2005, nofollow tags have been created as a way to fight spam.

search engine optimisation professionals started utilizing this tag as a manner of PageRank sculpting.

Google additionally unleashed a pair of noteworthy updates:

  • Jagger, which helped to decrease the extent of unsolicited hyperlink exchanges that have been flying round, in addition to heralding the decline within the significance of anchor textual content as an element resulting from its corruptibility.
  • Big Daddy (coined by Jeff Manson of RealGeeks), which improved the structure of Google to permit for an improved understanding of the value and relationship of hyperlinks between websites.

YouTube, Google Analytics & Webmaster Tools

In October 2006, Google acquired user-generated video sharing community YouTube for $1.65 billion, which finally grew to become the second most used search property on this planet.

Today, YouTube has 2 billion customers!

Due to its hovering recognition, video search engine optimisation develop into essential for manufacturers, companies, and people that needed to be discovered.

Google additionally launched two extremely essential instruments in 2006:

  • Google Analytics. This free, web-based device was so popular at launch that site owners skilled downtime and upkeep warnings.
  • Google Webmaster Tools. Now often called the Search Console, Google Webmaster Tools let site owners view crawling errors, see what searches your web site confirmed up for, and request re-inclusion.


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Also in 2006, XML sitemaps gained universal support from the search engines.

XML sitemaps permit site owners to show to the major search engines, each URL on their web site that’s obtainable for crawling.

An XML sitemap incorporates not solely a listing of URLs however a variety of additional data, which helped search engines like google and yahoo to crawl extra intelligently.

Universal Search

We actually started to see search beginning to evolve in new and thrilling methods beginning in 2007.

All of these updates have been geared toward enhancing the search expertise for customers.

Let’s begin with Google’s Universal Search.

Until this level, the search outcomes had consisted of 10 blue hyperlinks.

Then Google started mixing conventional natural search outcomes with different varieties of vertical outcomes like information, video, and pictures.

This was simply the most important change to Google search – and search engine optimisation – for the reason that Florida replace.

Cleaning up the Cesspool

In 2008, then-Google CEO Eric Schmidt mentioned the Internet was turning into a cesspool and that brands were the solution. “Brands are the way you type out the cesspool,” he mentioned.


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Less than six months after his remark, alongside got here a Google update called Vince.

Big manufacturers out of the blue appeared to be rating a complete lot higher within the SERPs.

But it wasn’t actually supposed to reward manufacturers, according to Google.

Google needed to place larger weight on belief within the algorithm (and massive manufacturers are likely to have extra belief than smaller and less-established manufacturers).

Shortly after this replace, Google launched one other to enhance the velocity of their indexing, known as Caffeine.

As Search Engine Journal reported on the time, Caffeine was “a next-generation search structure for Google that’s imagined to be quicker and extra correct, offering higher, extra related outcomes and crawling bigger elements of the online.”

Speaking of velocity, in 2010 Google announced that web site velocity was a rating issue.

Bing & The Search Alliance

In 2009, Microsoft Live Search grew to become Bing.

Then, in an try to problem Google’s practically 70% grip of the U.S. search market, Yahoo and Microsoft joined forces to accomplice on a 10-year search deal (although it ended up being reworked 5 years later).


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The Search Alliance noticed Microsoft’s Bing energy Yahoo’s natural and paid search outcomes.

While it made Bing the clear Number 2 search engine, they’ve finally failed to interrupt Google’s huge grip on search within the U.S. and globally. In October 2020, Bing formally rebranded to Microsoft Bing.

The Rise of Social Media

Another phenomenon was rising late within the 2000s: social networks.

Google made its massive wager on YouTube (though it might attempt once more with the now-defunct Google+).

But different networks like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn all emerged as main gamers (with many extra to come back and go within the following years).

Along with the rise of social media got here hypothesis that social indicators can affect search rankings.

Yes, social media will help search engine optimisation, however not directly – simply as different varieties of advertising will help drive extra visitors to your web site and improve model consciousness and affinity (which generates search demand).

While the affect of social shares (likes, tweets, +1’s, and many others.) has been denied repeatedly by Google by the years as being a rating issue, it continued to be listed as having a powerful correlation in varied ranking factor studies.


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If you need to learn extra about this matter, I extremely counsel studying How Social Media Helps SEO [Final Answer].


Schema markup, a kind of microdata, was launched in 2011 to assist search engines like google and yahoo interpret the context of the question. You can view each schema markup kind on Schema.org.

Schema isn’t a rating issue. And, there may be little proof to help it has an affect in your search efficiency.

However, schema does allow you to stand out within the SERPs with wealthy and featured snippets.

For instance, in a Search Engine Journal webinar, Milestone shared they noticed a 33-66% enhance in search impressions for big fast-food restaurant chain places after schema was deployed.

Another experiment by InLinks revealed that websites with schema gained rankings as soon as schema was applied.

If you’re uncertain for those who correctly applied structured information, check it in Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool.

The Google Zoo: Panda & Penguin

Two main algorithmic updates – Panda in 2011 and Penguin in 2012 – had a huge impact on search engine optimisation that’s nonetheless being felt to today, as Google as soon as once more tried to scrub up its search outcomes and reward high-quality websites.


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In 2011, Google discovered its search outcomes dealing with extreme scrutiny as a result of so-called “content material farms” (web sites that produced excessive volumes of low-quality content material) have been dominating the search outcomes.

Google’s SERPs have been additionally cluttered with web sites that includes unoriginal and auto-generated content material – and even, in some situations, scraper websites have been outranking content material originators.

As a end result, these websites have been making tons of promoting income (keep in mind after I talked about Google’s self-made AdSense drawback?).

These websites have been additionally dwelling and dying by natural visitors from Google.

But as soon as Google’s Panda update rolled out in 2011, many web sites noticed a lot, if not all, of that visitors vanish in a single day.

Google supplied some perception on what counts as a high-quality site.

Aimed at eliminating low-quality (or skinny) content material, Panda was up to date periodically over the approaching years, finally turning into integrated into Google’s core algorithm in 2016.

With web sites nonetheless recovering from the consequences of Panda, Google unleashed a hotly anticipated over-optimization algorithm, supposed to remove “aggressive spam techniques” from its outcomes.


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Eventually dubbed Penguin, this algorithm focused hyperlink schemes (web sites with uncommon linking patterns, together with a high-amount of actual match anchor textual content that matched key phrases you

needed to rank for) and key phrase stuffing.

Penguin wasn’t up to date practically as incessantly as Panda, with greater than a yr passing between some updates. And, like Panda, Penguin became part of Google’s real-time algorithm in 2016.

Things, Not Strings

In May 2012, Google unveiled the Knowledge Graph.

This was a serious shift away from decoding key phrases strings to understanding semantics and intent.

Here’s how Amit Singhal, Google’s former SVP for engineering, described it at launch:

“The Knowledge Graph lets you seek for issues, folks or locations that Google is aware of about – landmarks, celebrities, cities, sports activities groups, buildings, geographical options, motion pictures, celestial objects, works of artwork and extra – and immediately get data that’s related to your question. This is a crucial first step in the direction of constructing the subsequent technology of search, which faucets into the collective intelligence of the online and understands the world a bit extra like folks do.”


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Google enhanced its search outcomes with this data.

Knowledge panels, containers, and carousels can seem every time folks do a seek for one of the billions of entities and details within the Knowledge Graph.

The subsequent step in Google’s subsequent technology of search got here in September 2013 within the kind of Hummingbird, a brand new algorithm designed to raised handle pure language queries and conversational search.

With the rise of cell (and voice search), Google wanted to fully rebuild how its algorithm labored to satisfy the wants of trendy searchers.

Hummingbird was thought-about to be the most important change to Google’s core algorithm since 2001. Clearly, Google needed to ship quicker and extra related outcomes, particularly to cell customers.


Starting someplace round 2005 or so, one query saved being requested in our {industry}:

Is this the “Year of Mobile”?

Well, it seems that it wasn’t in 2005.

Or 2006.

Neither was 2007.

Or 2008. Or 2009.

Not even 2010 – when Google remodeled itself right into a mobile-first firm.


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Then 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 got here and went.

Mobile was talked about and much-hyped as a result of it was rising like loopy all this time.

As extra customers adopted smartphones, they have been more and more trying to find companies and issues whereas on the transfer.

Finally, in 2015, we had the Year of Mobile – the purpose at which mobile searches overtook desktop search for the primary time on Google. And whereas that is true in phrases of uncooked search numbers, it’s additionally true that search intent is kind of totally different and conversion charges stay a lot decrease on cell units.

This was additionally the yr that comScore reported mobile-only internet users surpassed desktop-only users.

It was additionally in 2015 that Google launched a much-anticipated mobile-friendly algorithm update, designed to present customers “essentially the most related and well timed outcomes, whether or not the knowledge is on mobile-friendly net pages or in a cell app.”

In an try to hurry up pages, Google additionally launched Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) in 2016.

The thought behind AMP was to immediately load content material. Many information media and publishers rapidly adopted AMP and proceed to make use of it right now.


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And, this will not shock you, however in January 2017, Google introduced that page speed will now be a ranking factor for mobile searches.

In that very same month, Google acknowledged it’s going to start to devalue pages with intrusive pop-ups.

In July 2019, mobile-first indexing was enabled for all new web sites. And, by March 2021, all web sites can have switched to mobile-first indexing.

Machine Learning & Intelligent Search

Earlier, I discussed that Google, initially constructed round data retrieval, grew to become a mobile-first firm.

Well, that modified in 2017 as a result of Google CEO Sundar Pichai declared Google a machine learning-first firm.

Today, Google search is designed to tell and help, reasonably than giving customers a listing of hyperlinks.

That’s why Google has constructed machine studying into all of its merchandise – together with search, Gmail, Ads, Google Assistant, and extra.

In phrases of search, we’ve already began to see the affect of machine studying with Google RankBrain.

Announced in October 2015, RankBrain was initially used to attempt to interpret the 15% of searches that Google has by no means seen earlier than, primarily based on the phrases or phrases the consumer has entered.


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Since that point, Google has expanded RankBrain to run on each search.

While RankBrain impacts rating, it isn’t a rating issue within the conventional sense, the place you get rewarded with higher rankings for doing x, y, and z.

And there’s far more coming quickly on this planet of intelligent search.

  • Voice searches are growing.
  • Visual search has gotten insanely good
  • Users (and types) are more and more adopting chatbots and utilizing private assistants (e.g., Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, and Microsoft’s Cortana).

These advances in expertise imply extra thrilling instances are forward for individuals who do search engine optimisation.

Google’s Core Updates

Google makes updates to its algorithm on daily basis.

But, all year long, Google releases core updates when there’s a change to its algorithm.

There are additionally broad core algorithm updates.

The aim of these core updates is to create a greater search expertise for customers with extra related, reliable search outcomes.

These Google core updates don’t goal a sure web page or web site however purpose to enhance how the system tracks content material.


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Here’s how Google described these core updates:

“One method to assume of how a core replace operates is to think about you made a listing of the highest 100 motion pictures in 2015. A few years later in 2019, you refresh the record. It’s going to naturally change. Some new and great motion pictures that by no means existed earlier than will now be candidates for inclusion. You may also reassess some movies and understand they deserved a better place on the record than that they had earlier than.”

In March 2018, Google confirmed a broad core algorithm replace had rolled out to learn “under-rewarded” pages.

A little over a month later, Google launched one other broad core algorithm replace focused at content relevance.

Then, one other broad core replace rolled out in August (generally wrongly and inaccurately known as the “Medic” update) focusing on websites with low-quality content material.

In March 2019, as an extension of the August 2018 core replace, Google confirmed {that a} core replace (a.ok.a., Florida 2) was right here and it was imagined to be a giant one.


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But, the search engine optimisation group felt it was more of a rollback of previous algorithms.

And, one other broad core update hit in June 2019 that uncovered weaknesses of E-A-T on web sites, specializing in the authority and trustworthiness of incoming hyperlinks.

Every from time to time, Google will launch a broad core replace that has an affect on all search outcomes worldwide.

For instance, there was a broad core update in September 2019 that geared toward boosting websites with general optimum efficiency. And, one other broad core update in January 2020 that focused YMYL (your cash, your life) classes.

That’s the important thing distinction with broad core updates vs. core updates – you should analyze your web site general, not a particular web page.

Most just lately, Google launched a core update in May 2020 that focusing on skinny content material touchdown pages whereas giving a lift to native search outcomes.


BERT is the most important Google algorithm replace since RankBrain.

BERT stands for Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers used for pure language processing.


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Essentially, it helps Google perceive the context of search queries higher.

For instance, the phrase “bat” can imply a nocturnal winged animal usually related to Batman. Or, it may be used when a baseball participant goes as much as bat.

With BERT, Google is ready to dissect the context to serve up higher search outcomes.

What makes BERT even higher is that Google can now use the phrases surrounding your key phrases to assist its spiders digest your content material.

For instance, “I went to within the bat cave.” Or, “After my bat, I went into the dugout.” Google can now generate a context mannequin round different phrases within the sentence. This is an important consider how pure language processing recognized human communication.

As Google’s Danny Sullivan said:

“There’s nothing to optimize for with BERT, nor something for anybody to be rethinking. The fundamentals of us searching for to reward nice content material stay unchanged.”

If you’re nonetheless involved in studying extra about BERT, Dawn Anderson explains everything you need to know about BERT here.


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You’ve most likely seen featured snippets earlier than, however not realized what they have been.

Featured snippets are quick textual content, bullet factors, numbers, or tables that seem on the prime of Google’s search.

The aim of a featured snippet is to reply the searcher’s question instantly within the SERPs while not having to click on by to the web site.

But, featured snippets can be extremely volatile so tread calmly.

Featured snippets are nothing new. They have been spotted all the best way again in 2014.

Featured snippets have kicked off the attract of the coveted “place zero.” Meaning, your search result’s featured above all the opposite distractions within the SERPs, plus you’ll additionally seem within the natural outcomes.

In January 2020, Google up to date this function to de-duplicate featured snippet search results so you’ll both be included within the featured snippet or the natural end result, not each.

And, in June 2020, Google launched one other replace stating that featured snippets will now take customers on to the textual content that’s related to their search question.


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Users now see the textual content highlighted in yellow.

As voice search continues to refine itself, featured snippet content material will present a giant alternative to extend natural visibility.


Search engines and search engine optimisation have come a good distance for the reason that Nineties.

We’ve solely touched on just a few of these methods on this submit.

The historical past of search engine optimisation has been crammed with thrilling turns – the start of new search engines like google and yahoo, the loss of life of outdated search engines like google and yahoo, new SERP options, new algorithms, and fixed assessments and updates – plus the emergence of nice search engine optimisation publications, conferences, instruments, and consultants.

While search engines like google and yahoo and search engine optimisation have developed vastly through the years, one factor stays true: so long as there are search engines like google and yahoo, search engine optimisation will stay very important.

And we’ve solely gotten began!

Featured Image Credit: Paulo Bobita

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